Wawel has been the royal residence and political center of Poland from XI to XVI century. It was built on the left|
shore of Wisła, on the south of the city. The Wawel hill located between meadows, suarrounded by Wisla and Rudawa,
was a great place to defend. The eastern hill, not much higher than western, was developed at first, but wood and
mud-built fortiffications were built all over the hill. The oldest building there is rotunda NMP, on the south west of it in
1968 there were found some old relics from the same century as rotunda. The first cathedral on Wawel was built in the
first half of XI century, to the north of rotunda. The cathedral wielded Sacred Gereons call. We can watch rotunda on
the excibition "The lost Wawel", the old walls situated underground are really fascinating. At this time there was also
the square building , now this place is in the north-west corner of internal courtyard.